All posts filed under: Anthropology

Cross cultural love and friendship stories help creativity

– by William Maddux and Andrew Hafenbranck, INSEAD The stamp in one’s passport doesn’t always define the distance one has travelled. For some professionals, an overseas stint is an opportunity to change not only their surroundings but also themselves – to become more broad-minded and creative people. Previous research suggests that expats who deeply engage with the local culture by mixing with locals and learning their language, for example, tend to become more creative and enjoy greater professional success after returning home than those who stick to expat enclaves. If what matters most for creative growth is the bridges you build between cultures, not the physical borders you cross, perhaps leaving home isn’t absolutely necessary. After all, globalisation has produced an unprecedented mingling of cultures and ethnicities, as is evident on the streets of nearly every major global city (much to the outrage of the far right). The chance to form cross-cultural bonds could be as close as the next street corner, or the next cubicle. Regardless of the surroundings, close personal relationships – including …

London Boaters Mobilities in Today’s Society

Within London, it exists a community of nomadic people, which unfolds along and concurrently coexists with all the hustle and plurality of the vibrant urban life. London’s intricate architecture disguises the presence of a widespread network of canals and rivers that crisscross it, and it is within such intricate loom that boaters slowly and silently carry on their lives. It is a “secret town” (Cullen in Braithwaite 1976:8), that of boaters, a world on its own that, ever since the construction of the first narrowboat, has concealed a character of marginality and of partial separation from State’s institutions. While allowing a higher degree of freedom and independence, the freedom to be wherever you choose, to move wherever you want, the boat has also always gifted boaters with the self-sufficiency of resources. However, many are the implications as well as the contradictions that spring from the coexistence of such flexible nomadic lives within the bounded spaces and sharp structures of contemporary society. Narrowboats where first built as means for the transportations of industrial goods, and where …

M.C. Escher, Writing Hands, Rijksmuseum Collection, Amsterdam


Today scholars of all disciplines have realized that how their research is presented is at least as important as what is presented. Questions of voice, style and audience – the classic issues of rhetoric – have taken the front scene in matters of writing a report. Writing is intended as a communicative act between author and reader. Thus, when a text is released and goes public,  meanings writers may think they have frozen into certain words, may melt before the eyes of active readers. “Meanings are not permanently embedded by an author in the text at the moment of creation. They are woven from the symbolic capacity of a piece of writing and the social context of its reception. Most crucially, different categories of readers will display systematic differences in their perceptions and interpretations of the same writing”, says Van Maanen in his reflections on writing ethnography. Thus writing combines elements of the real, in a certain world, at a certain time and from a certain position, and reaches out for a meaning in relation …

The Gift

The Gift

The gift, a seemingly simple act, is actually a canvas where meanings and expectations interlace. Marcel Mauss has reconstructed the dynamics of the gift in a famous essay, The Gift, published by Routledge. Here he explains that “the voluntary nature of the gift, so to speak, is only apparently free and independent. The gift is actually bound and affected to the very moment it is performed in a social setting”. This means that the social phenomenon of the gift intertwines with other obligations: giving, receiving and reciprocating. It is actually in the gift that the principle of reciprocity takes form. The exchange brings together people and starts – or challenges – social relationships that are built – or ended – over time, with other exchanges, with other gifts. The energy of giving, receiving and returning, or failing the return expectations, or in inadequate forms, may build and consolidate – or not – social relations. © Melissa Pignatelli 2012 Source: Marcel Mauss, The Gift, Routledge, 1990 (First Publication in French in 1950)

Red Hornbill Earrings

Beautiful Earrings

In the hills of Luzon, in the Philippines, when an Ilongot  puts on red hornbill earrings it is the excepltional sign that he has killed a man. Red, bright and dancing from the upper lobes of the ears, the earrings are both body jewelry and a signal understood by everyone. They are seen as “beautiful”. When the anthropologist Renato Rosaldo of Stanford University, tried to further develop the meaning of “beautiful earrings”, the Ilongot looked at him with a kind of pity. “They’re beautiful, they used to answer, nothing more and nothing less.” Being able to wear those red hornbill earrings, is being able to show your masculinity. The beheading of another human being is, in itself, an expression of power, and not being able to wear “beautiful earrings” on visits and invitation is a problem. The meaning of those beautiful earrings is then shut down in a circular way: earrings show one has killed a man and killing a man means one is able to wear earrings on social occasions. The earrings are made …

MOMA, New York City

Museums and Time

“Why are museums associated with the past?”, asks Pietro Clemente, Anthropology Professor at the University of Florence, Italy, in a paper focusing on Heritage. Perhaps because of the Muses, or Egyptian, Etruscan and Roman museums. When you think about these ancient people, you think they are in a fuzzy and remote time, not in the ‘real’ time of our knowledge of them: but then archeology is one of the most modern and computerized subjects of the humanities. Of course, there is still some room for romantic gestures and visionary insights, but the last word is based on computed tomography. Collections are a relatively recent phenomenon, and for certain categories (objects of ordinary people, calling cards, modern art) it is constantly changing. The ICOM (International Council of Museums, a UNESCO related NGO) was founded on science museums and civilization museums, like archaeological and ethnographic ones, that have more than 150 years, and are constantly updating their communication and multimedia technology. In this sense there is nothing more up-to-date, postmodern, and technologically advanced of a museum. Especially …